Applied Works of the Founders of Microstamping 

Gear Code Extraction from Microstamped Cartridges

The firing pins of three different handguns were modified to stamp a six-digit alpha-numeric code and a circumferential digital code known as a gear code into the primer of a cartridge when fired. In this paper the transfer of gear codes from firing pin to primers was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Only those cartridges that received poor clarity marks optically as regarding the alpha-numeric code were chosen for evaluation in the SEM. Photo editing software was employed to clearly outline and decipher the gear code around the circumference of the microstamped primer. Results show that the better imaging of the SEM allows more of the alpha-numeric identifiers to be distinguished as well as more of the gear code structure, however complete recognition is still not possible in all cases.

Dynamic 3D analytic tools: a method for maintaining situational awareness during high tempo warfare or mass casualty operations

A system and method for generating a spherical situation display representing the state of a monitored variable of a system, including a hub representing the system to be monitored, at least one variable cone representing a variable of the system with each variable cone extending radially from a hub and having a radial extent and width representative of a characteristic of a variable of the system, at least one threshold shell representing a boundary of a characteristic of a variable of the system, a trend shell representing a current value of a characteristic of a variable, and modifying a characteristic of a variable cone to represent a corresponding change of a variable of the system.

Clarity of Microstamped Identifiers as a Function of Primer Hardness and Type of Firearm Action

The transfer of microstamped identifiers to the primers of fired cartridges was examined using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The identifiers were placed on the firing pins of three different 9mm handguns, namely, a Sig Sauer, a Taurus, and a Hi-Point. Ten different brands of ammunition were fired from each handgun, 100 rounds being fired using each brand for a total of 1000 rounds fired per handgun. The quality of the markings was evaluated using a simple observation rubric. These results were compared to Vickers hardness values obtained from the ammunition primers and are discussed in light of the types of actions of firearms used.

Tracking illicit small arms trafficking: implementation of Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) to small arms and light weapons imports and exports

This paper will explain the key attributes of Intentional Firearm Microstamping technology; including its implementation and application benefits such as developing border security controls and law enforcement capacity world wide to combat illicit trafficking of firearms to terrorists, gangs and/or fueling regional conflicts. The data generated by IFM will be discussed and its application to spatial and temporal mapping of trafficking patterns and other criminal patterns.

Extracting ballistic forensic intelligence: microstamped firearms deliver data for illegal firearm traffic mapping: technology, implementation, and applications

This paper will outline IFM applications for supporting intelligence led policing initiatives, IFM implementation strategies, describe the how IFM overcomes the firearms stochastic properties and explain the code extraction technologies that can be used by forensic investigators and discuss the applications where the extracted data will benefit geospatial information systems for forensic intelligence benefit.

Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources, trafficking routes, as well as spatial and temporal mapping of narco-terrorist movements on either side of the border.

Firearm microstamping technology: counterinsurgency intelligence gathering tool

This paper will explain the technology and key attributes of microstamping technology, test data showing its ability to identifying a specific firearm, examples of implementation strategies and to what extent data could be utilized in war zone security and counterinsurgency intelligence operations.

Forensic firearm identification of semiautomatic handguns using laser formed Microstamping elements

This paper will present a unique law enforcement technology, embedded into firearms for tracking the sources of illegally trafficked firearms, called Microstamping. Microstamping is a laser based micromachining process that forms microscopic “intentional structures and marks” on components within a firearm. Thus when the firearm is fired, these microstamp structures transfer an identifying tracking code onto the expended cartridge ejected from the firearm. Microstamped structures are laser micromachined alpha numeric and encoded geometric tracking numbers, linked to the serial number of the firearm. Ballistic testing data will be presented covering microstamp transfer quality, transfer rates and survivability/durability. Further information will provide an overview on how microstamping information can be utilized by law enforcement to combat illegal firearm trafficking.

Method and apparatus for reading firearm microstamping

An indicia for marking on an object, such as a cartridge case, for representing selected information, such as identification indicia identifying the firearm that discharged the cartridge, and methods and apparatus for generating, imprinting and reading the identification indicia. An indicia includes a multi-dimensional array of encoded marks, including encoded marks determined by spectral encoding variables representing the selected information wherein each spectral variable is spectrally distinguishable from others of the spectral variables representing variables, and an encoded pattern of the encoded marks is determined by algorithmic transformation of the selected information. An indicia may also include hologram related artwork. An indicia may be an encoded hologram multi-dimensional barcode, an encoded hologram or an encoded concentric circular barcode and may be formed of a single indicia or as an array of indicia.

Method and apparatus for cartridge identification imprinting in difficult contexts by recess protected indicia

Imprinting an identification indicia on a cartridge in a difficult context, such as on a coated cartridge or on a high power cartridge. A marking indicia is formed on a base surface located in the interior surface of a cartridge chamber containing the cartridge and includes marking lands raised with respect to the base surface and a maximum marking indicia elevation above the base surface that is coplanar with the interior surface. The marking indicia is thereby recessed with respect to the interior surface and the identification indicia is thereby recessed with respect to the imprint surface.

Firearm microstamping and micromarking insert for stamping a firearm identification code and serial number into cartridge shell casings and projectiles

A firearm comprising a gun barrel for accommodating a desired round of ammunition having a bullet, a shell casing and a primer. The gun barrel has a firing pin associated with a chamber of the gun barrel and the firing pin is activated by a trigger assembly. When the firing pin is activated by the trigger assembly, a striking surface of the firing pin strikes the primer and discharges the round of ammunition to propel the bullet out of the opposite end of the gun barrel. The firing pin, the interior surface of the barrel, or some other surface which contacts the shell casing carries a unique identifying indicia. Upon discharge of the round of ammunition, the component of the firearm carrying the unique identifying indicia transfers an impression of the unique identifying indicia to an exterior surface of the shell casing to identify that the shell casing was discharged by that firearm.

Method and apparatus for reading firearm Microstamping

Identification of firearms by illuminating a base of a fired cartridge from a firearm using axially homogenized light from various illumination angles using a holographic imaging system integrated into either a mono-chromatic or multi-chromatic light, obtaining a microscope image of an encoded hologram or encoded alphanumeric code or barcodes or indicia that form unique impressions on a primer of the cartridge or bullet; and utilizing specialized analysis software to read the encoded codes and provide the serial number or tracking number unique to the firearm that fired the bullet or cartridge.

Gathering intelligence with laser marks embedded into firearms

As firearms are supplied to the host nation, it is not uncommon for some of them to be skimmed and find their way into insurgent hands. Tracking those weapons is important for understanding how the insurgency operates, infiltrates, and corrupts the host government. Our Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) procedure is a proactive means to tag firearms during their manufacture.

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